The effects of hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations on online purchasing intentions : a Turkish case study

N. Sütütemiz and M. Saygılı

Vol 16 | Issue 1, pp. 61-83


This paper  was structured to examine  the effects of shopping  motivations that are classified as hedonic  and utilitarian on the online buying intentions of consumers. In this context, one of the three aims of the study was to reveal traditional shopping motivations for online shopping, and the second aim was to test whether traditional shopping motivations  are also valid for online shopping, whereas  the last aim was to examine  the effects of traditional shopping motivations on purchasing intention. The population of the study was consumers who are shopping online and older than 18 years. The sample was chosen via the convenience sampling method among consumers, and accordingly,

460 participants were included examined. The survey method was used as a data-gathering technique, and the data  were  analyzed  with the  Exploratory  Factor  Analysis  (EFA), Confirmatory  Factor  Analysis  (CFA) and  Structural Equation  Modelling (SEM) methods. The findings showed  that the motivations  of traditional  shopping  are  also  valid for online  shopping  and  have  an  effect  on purchasing  intentions.  Primarily, it was  found  that  the  relative  effect  of utilitarian motivation is high.

Keywords:        Hedonic Shopping Motivations, Utilitarian Shopping Motivations, Online Purchase Intention, Online Shopping

Back to Volume 16 issue 1

This article may be downloaded from the following locations:


Ahmed,  K. A. A. 2015.  ‘Utilitarian and  hedonic  motives  of university  students in their online shopping-a gender  based examinatıon. Global Management Review, 9(4): 71-91.

Ajzen, I. 1991. ‘The theory of planned behaviour’, Organisational  Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50: 179-211. Akar, E. (2008). İnternet Ortamında Pazarlama.  İnci Varinli and Kahraman Çatı (ed.). In Güncel Pazarlama Yaklaşımlarından Seçmeler. Detay Yayıncılık. İstanbul.

Alba, J., Lynch, J., Weitz, B., Janiszewski,  C., Lutz, R., Sawyer, A. & Wood, S. 1997. ‘Interactive home shopping:  Consumer, retailer, and manufacture incentives to participate  in electronic marketplaces’,  Journal of Marketing, 61(3): 38–53.

Antonides, G. & Raaij, W. F. 1998. Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Arnold, M. J. & Reynolds, K. E. 2012. ‘Approach and avoidance motivation: Investigating  hedonic  consumption  in a retail setting’, Journal  of Retailing, 88(3), 399-411.

Arnold, M. J. & Reynolds, K. E. (2003). ‘Hedonic shopping  motivations’, Journal  of Retailing, 79(2): 77-95.

Babin, B. J. & Attaway, J. S. 2000. ‘Atmospheric affect as a tool of creating value and gaining share  of customer’, Journal of Business Research, 49: 91-99.

Babin,  B. J.,  Darden,  W. R., & Griffin, M. 1994.’ Work and/or  fun: Measuring  hedonic  and  utilitarian shopping  value’, Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4):644- 656.

Bagozzi,  R. P., Youjae, Y. & Phillips, L. W. 1991. ’Assessing construct  validity in organizational research’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3): 421-458.

Batra, R. & Ahtola, O. T. 1990. ‘Measuring the hedonic  and utilitarian sources of consumer attitudes‘,  Marketing Letters, 2(2): 159-170.

Bellenger,  D. N. & Korgaonkar,  P. K. 1980.  ‘Profiling the recreational shopper‘,  Journal  of Retailing, 56(3): 77– 92. Berry, L. L., Carbone, L. & Haeckel,  S. H. (200?).  ‘Managing  the total customer  experience‘, MIT Sloan  Management Review, 43(3): 1-6.

Blake,  B. F., Neuendorf,  K.A. & Valdiserri,  C. M., 2005.  ‘Tailoring new  websites  to appeal  to those  most  likely to shop online’, Technovation,  25: 1205–1214.

Bridges, E., & Florsheim,  R. 2008.  ‘Hedonic and utilitarian shopping  goals:  The online experience’, Journal of Business Research, 61(4), 309-314.

Bruner II, G. C., & Kumar, A. 2005. ‘Explaining consumer acceptance of handheld  internet  devices’,  Journal of Business Research, 58: 553-558.

Byrne, B. M. 2010. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. 2nd Edition, Routledge, New York.

Cai, Y. & Cude, J. B. 2008. Online Shopping. J. Jian Xiao (ed.). In Handbook of Consumer Finance Research. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. 137-159.

Campbell, R. M., Jr. 2002. Measuring Consumers Evaluations of the Functional, Symbolic and Experiential of Brands. Oregon: University of Oregon.

Chakraborty,  S., & Soodan, V. 2019. ‘Examining utilitarian and hedonic motivations in online shopping in India: Moderating effect of product browsing behavior’. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), 8(1C2):117-125.

Chang,  C. C. & Chen,  C. W. 2015.  ‘Examining hedonic  and  utilitarian bidding motivations  in online auctions:  Impacts  of time pressure and competition’, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 19(2): 39-65.

Chang,  E., Burns,  L. D. & Francis,  S.  K.2004).  ‘Gender  differences  in the  dimensional structure  of apparel shopping satisfaction among  korean  consumers: the role of hedonic  shopping  value‘, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 22(4): 185-199.

Chen,  J., Ching, R. K.H., Luo, M. M. & Liu, C.C. 2008.  ‘Virtual experiential  marketing  on online customer  ıntentions an loyalty‘, Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference  on System  Sciences-2008, IEEE.

Chen,  M. H., Lee, H. H., Tsai, K. M. & Lin, L. S. W. 2008.  ‘Ceating values  for online shoppers.  International Conference on Business and Information‘, South  Korea,  Seoul: Academy of Taiwan Information Systems Research. 7-9 July, 5.1: (2 September 2014).

Chiang  K.-P. & Dholakia  R. R. (2003).  ‘Factors  driving consumer ıntention  to shop  online: an empirical ınvestigation‘, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(1-2), 177-183.

Childers,  T. L., Carr,  L. C., Peck,  J. & Carson, S. 2001.  ‘‘Hedonic  and  utilitarian motivations  for online retail shopping behavior’, Journal  of Retailing. 77: 511–535.

Chiu, C. M., Wang,  E. T., Fang,  Y. H. & Huang,  H. Y. 2014.  ‘Understanding customers’ repeat  purchase   intentions in B2C e‐commerce: The  roles  of utilitarian value,  hedonic  value  and  perceived risk’, Information  Systems  Journal, 24(1): 85-114.

Cronbach, L. J. 1951.  ‘Coefficient alpha  and the internal structure  of tests‘, Psychometrika, 16(3): 297-334.

Dabholkar,  P.A.  & Bagozzi,  R. P.  2002.  ‘An attitudinal  model  of technology-based self service:  Moderating  effects  of consumer traits and situational factors’, Journal  of the Academy Marketing Science, 30(3): 184-201.

Danziger, P. N. 2004. Why People  Buy Things: They Don’t Need: Understanding  Predicting Consumer Behavior. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Publishing.

Davis, F. D. 1989.  ‘Perceived usefulness, perceived ease  of use  and  user  acceptance of information technology’, MIS Quarterly, 13(3): 319-340.

Davis, R., Lang, B. & Diego, J. S. 2014.  ‘How gender  affects  the relationship between  hedonic  shopping  motivation and purchase  intentions?’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 13(1): 18-30.

Dawson,  S., Bloch, P. H.& Ridgway,  N. M.1990. ‘Shopping  motives,  emotional states,  and  retail outcomes‘, Journal  of Retailing, 66(4): 408-427.

Devaraj, S., Fan,  M. & Kohli, R. 2002.  ‘Antecedents  of B2C channel  satisfaction and  preference: validating e-commerce metrics‘, Information Systems Research, 13(3): 316-334.

Dhar,  R. & Wertenbroch, K. 2000.  ‘Consumer  choice  between   hedonic  and  utilitarian  goods‘,  Journal  of Marketing Research, 37(1): 60-71.

Dholakia, R. R. 1999.  ‘Going shopping: key determinants of shopping  behaviour and motivations’, International  Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 27(4): 154-165.

Doğrul, Ü. 2012. Elektronik Alışveriş Davranışında Faydacı ve Hedonik Güdülerin Etkisi. Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi. 4(1): 321-331.

Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A. & Davis, L. M. 2003. ‘Empirical testing  of a model of online store  atmospherics and shopper responses’, Psychology & Marketing, 20(2): 139–150.

Ertekin, C. Z. O. 2014. ‘Role of shopping  motives,  age  and gender  in evaluating retail atmospheric cues’, Asian Journal of Marketing, 8(1): 24-43.

Falk, P. 1997. The Scopic Regimes of Shopping. In: Falk, P., Campbell, C. (Ed.), The Shopping Experience. Saga Publications, London, pp. 177–185.

Fiore,  A. M. & Kim, J.  2007.  ‘An integrative  framework  capturing  experiential  and  utilitarian  shopping  experience‘, International Journal of Retailing & Distribution Management, 35(6): 421-442.

Fishbein, M. & Azjen, I. 1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison – Wesley.

Fornell, C. & Larcker,  D. F. 1981.  ‘Evaluating structural equation  models  with unobservable variables  and  measurement error‘, Journal  of Marketing Research, 18: 39-50.

George, J. F. 2004. The Theory of Planned Behavior and internet purchasing, Internet Research, 14(3): 198-212.

Ghosh,  S., 1998.  ‘Marketing business sense of the internet’, Harvard  Business Review, March–April, 127–135.

Gilly, M. C. & Wolfinbarger, M. 2000. ‘A comparison of consumer experiences with online and offline shopping‘, Consumption, Markets and Culture, 4(2): 187-205.

Guido, G. 2006. ‘Shopping motives, big five factors, and the hedonic/utilitarian shopping value: An integration and factorial study‘, Innovative  Marketing. 2(2): 57-67.

Haanpää, L. 2005.  Shopping for fun or for needs? A study  of shopping  values,  styles  and  motives  of finnish consumers in 2001-2003. Proceedings of The 7th Conference of European Sociological Association. Torun, Poland, September, pp. 9-12.

Hae-Sook, K. 2005. ‘The types of clothing shopping  value and the classification  of consumer group by shopping  values‘. Journal of Fashion Business, 9(6): 126-140.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J. & Black, W. C. 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective (Vol. 7). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Haiyan, H., & Jasper, C. 2004. ‘Men and women: A comparison of shopping  mall behavior’, Journal  of Shopping Center Research, 11(1-2): 114-131.

Hansen, T. 2008. ‘Consumer Values, The Theory of planned  behavior and online grocery shopping’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32: 128-137.

Hausman, A. V. & Siekpe,  J. S. 2009.  ‘The effect of web  ınterface  features  on consumer online purchase intentions‘. Journal of Business Research, 62(1): 5-13.

Hirschman,  E. C. & Holbrook,  M. B. (1982).  ‘Hedonic consumption: emerging concepts,   methods  and  propositions‘, Journal of Marketing. 46(2): 92-101.

Hirschman, E. C. 1984. ‘Experience seeking: A subjectivist perspective  of consumption‘,  Journal of Business Research, 12 (March): 115-136.

Hoffman D. L. & Novak T. P. 1996. ‘Marketing in hypermedia  computer-mediated environments:  Conceptual  foundations’, Journal of Marketing, 60(3): 50–68.

Holbrook, M. B. & Hirschman,  E. C. 1982.  ‘The experiential aspects of consumption: consumer fantasies,  feelings,  and fun‘, Journal  of Consumer Research, 9(2): 132-140.

Howard,  J.  A.,  &  Sheth,  J.  N.  1969.  The  Theory  of  Buyer  Behaviour.  New  York:  Wiley. (01 May 2018).

Ibrahim, M. F. & Wee, Ng. C. (2002). ‘The importance of entertainment in the shopping  center experience:  evidence  from singapore‘, Journal  of Real Estate  Portfolio Management, 8(3): 239-254.

Irani, N., & Hanzaee, K. H. 2011.  ‘The effects  of variety-seeking buying tendency  and  price sensitivity on utilitarian and hedonic  value in apparel  shopping  satisfaction’, International Journal of Marketing Studies,  3(3):89.

Jamal,  A., Davies,  F.,  Chudry,  F. & Al-Marri, M. 2006.  ‘Profiling consumers: a  study  of qatari  consumers’ shopping motivations‘, Journal  of Retailing and Consumer Services,  13(1): 67–80.

Jarrat,  D. G. 1996. ‘A shopper  taxonomy for retail strategy  development‘, The International  Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 6(2):196-215.

Jarvenpaa S.L. & Todd P. A. 1996.  ‘Consumer reactions  to electronic shopping  on the World Wide Web’, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 1(2):59–88 .

Jiang, Y. & Wang, C. L. 2006. ‘The impact of affect on service quality and satisfaction: the moderation of service context‘, Journal of Services Marketing, 20(4): 211-218.

Jones, M. A., Reynolds, K. E. & Arnold, M. J.  2006.  ‘Hedonic  and  utilitarian shopping  value:  investigating  differential effects  on retail outcomes‘, Journal  of Business Research, 59: 974–981.

Keeney,  R.L. 1999.  ‘The value  of internet  commerce to the  customer‘, Management Science,  ABI/INFORMS Global, 45(4): 533-542.

Khan, U., Dhar, R. & Wertenbroch, K. A. 2004. Behavional Decision Theoretic Perspective on Hedonic and Utilitarion Choice. INSEAD, 2004/66/MKT, Working Paper Series.

Kim Y-K. 2002. ‘Consumer value: An application to mall and Internet shopping’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(11/12): 595–604.

Kim, H. S. 2006. ‘Using hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations to profile ınner city consumers‘, Journal of Shopping Center Research. 13(1): 57-79.

Kim, Y. K., Sullivan. P. & Forney, J.C. 2007. Experiential Retailing. New York: Concerty and Strategies That Sell, Fairchild Publications, Inc.

Kim, Y. M. & K. Y. Shim. 2002.  ‘The influence of intent shopping  mall characteristics and user  traits on purchase  intent‘, Iris Marketing Review. 15 (2): 25–34.

Kim, Y.-K. 2001.  ‘Experiential retailing: An interdisciplinary approach  to success in domestic  and international  retailing‘. Journal of Consumer Services, 8: 287–289.

Kline, R. B. 1998. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. NJ: The Gilford Press.

Koufaris,  M., Kambil, A. & LaBarbera, P. A. 2001.  ‘Consumer  behavior  in web-based commerce: an  empirical  study‘, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Winter (2001–2002), 6(2): 115–138.

Kuhlmeier, D. & Knight, G. 2005. ‘Antecedents to internet-based  purchasing: A multinational study’, International Marketing Review, 22(4): 460-473.

Kurtuluş, K. (1998). Pazarlama  Araştırmaları (Cilt Yayın No:274).  İstanbul:  İ.Ü. İşletme  Fakültesi.

Lee, H., Qu, H. & Kim, Y. 2007.  ‘A study of the impact of personal  innovativeness on online travel shopping  behavior–A case study of Korean  travelers’,  Tourism Management, 28(3): 886-897.

Li, N. & Zhang, P. 2002. ‘Consumer online shopping  attitudes  and behavior: An assessment of research‘, Eight Americas Conference on Information Systems, 74: 508-517.

Liebermann,  Y. & Stashevsky, S. 2009. ‘Determinants  of online shopping:  Examination of an early-stage online market‘, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 26: 316–331.

Limayem,  M., Khalifa, M. & Frini, A. 2000.  ‘What makes  consumers buy from internet?  A longitudinal  study  of online shoppig’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part A, 30(4): 421-432.

Lin, H.-F. 2007.  ‘Predicting  consumer intentions to shop  online: An empirical  test  of competing theories‘,  Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 6: 433–442.

Mahato,  W. H. 1989.  ‘Motives must  be differential from needs, drives,  wants:  Strategy  ımplications‘, European Journal of Marketing, 23(3): 33-35.

Malhotra, N. K. 2004. Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Martínez-López, F. J., Pla-García, C., Gázquez-Abad, J. C., & Rodríguez-Ardura, I. 2014. ‘Utilitarian motivations  in online consumption:  Dimensional structure  and scales’.  Electronic Commerce Research and Applications,13(3):188-204.

Mathwick, C., Malhotra,  N. & Rigdon,  E. 2001.  ‘Experiential  value:  Conceptualization, measurement and  application  in the catalog  and ınternet shopping  environment‘, Journal  of Retailing, 77:39-56.

Michon, R., Yu H., Smith, D. & Chebat, J.-C.  2007.  ‘The shopping  experience of female  fashion  leaders‘,  International Journal of Retail&Distribution Management, 35(6): 488-501.

Millan, E. S. & Howard, E. 2007. ‘Shopping for pleasure? Shopping experiences of hungarian  consumers‘,  International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(6): 474-487.

Miller, L. R., Acton, C., Fullerton, A. D. & Maltby, J. 2002. SPSS For Social Scientists. Palgrave Mac Millan, New York.

Mishra, P. & Datta, B. 2011. ‘Perpetual asset  management of customer-based brand equity-The PAM evaluator’, Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1): 34-43.

Mohsin, M. (2020). ‘10 Online Shopping Statistics  You Need  to Know in 2020, Marketing Your Store,  https://www.oberlo. com/blog/online-shopping-statistics (Erişim Tarihi: 10 June  2020).

Morganosky,  M. A. & Cude,  B. J. 2000. ‘Consumer response   to online grocery  shopping’,  International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 28 (1): 17–26.

Moye, L. N. & Kincade,  D. H. 2002. ‘Influence of usage situations and consumer shopping  orientations on the ımportance of the retail store  enviroment’. The International  Review of Retail, Distribition and Consumer Research, 12(1): 59-79.

Nicholls, J.A.F., Kranendonk,  Li, F. C. J. & Roslow,  S. 2002.  ‘The Seven  year  itch? Mall shoppers across time‘, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(2/3): 149-165.

Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L. & Duhachek, A. 2003.  ‘The influence  of goal-directed  and  experiential  activities  on online flow experiencies‘, Journal  of Consumer Psychology, 13(1-2): 3-16.

Nysveen,  H., Pedersen, P.  E. & Thorbjornsen,  H. 2005.  ‘Explaning intentions  to use  mobile  chat  sevices: Moderating effects  of gender’.  Journal  of Consumer Marketing, 22(5): 247-256.

O’Brien, H. L. 2010. ‘The influence of hedonic  and utilitarian motivations on user engagement: The case  of online shopping experiences‘,  Interacting With Computers: Special  Issue  on User Experience. 22(5): 344-352.

Olsen,  S. O. & Skallerud,  K. 2011.  ‘Retail attributes  differential effects on utilitarian versus  hedonic  shopping  value’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(7): 532-539.

Olson,   J.  M. & Zanna, M. P.  1993.   ‘Attitudes and  attitude   change’,  Annual  Review  of Psychology,  28(3):  117-154. Overby, J. W. & Lee, E. J. 2006.  ‘The effects  of utilitarian and  hedonic  online shopping  value on consumer preference and intentions‘, Journal  of Business Research. 59: 1160-1166.

Ozen, H., & Kodaz, N. 2012. ‘Utilitarian or hedonic? A cross cultural study in online shopping’. Organizations  and Markets in Emerging Economies, 3(2):80-90.

Parsons, A. G. 2003. ‘Assessing the effectiveness of shopping  mall promotions: customer  analysis‘. International Journal of Retail&Distribution Managemet, 31(2/3): 74-79.

Pearce, S., & Coughlan, I. 2012. ‘Utilitarian and hedonic based  motivations for online shopping  behaviour’. Charles  Sturt University.

Rintamaki, T., Kanto, A., Kuusela, H. & Spence, M. T. 2006. Decomposing the value of department store shopping in to utilitarian, hedonic and social dimensions, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 34: 6-24.

Rohm, A. J. & Swaminathan, V. 2004. ‘A typology of online shoppers based  on shopping motivations’, Journal of Business Research, 57: 748–757.

Saydan, R. 2008.  ‘Tüketicilerin online  alışverişe yönelik risk ve fayda  algılamaları’,Elektronik Sosyal  Bilimler Dergisi, 7(23): 386-402.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger,  H., & Müller, H. 2003.  ‘Evaluating  the  fit of structural equation  models:  Tests  of significance  and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures’,  Methods of Psychological Research   Online, 8(2): 23-74.

Seo,  S. & Lee, Y. 2008. Shopping values of clothing retailers percevied by consumers of different social classes.  Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15, 491-499.

Sheth, J. N., Newman, B. I. Gross, B. L.  1991. Consumption Values and Market Choices: Theory and Applications. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western Publishing Co.

Spangenberg, E. R. Voss,  K. E. & Crowley, A. E. 1997.  ‘Measuring  the hedonic  and  utilitarian dimensions af attitude: A generally applicable  scale‘. Advances in Consumer Research. 24: 235-241.

Statista (2019). Number of digital buyers worldwide from 2014 to 2021, (10 June 2020).

Statista (2020).  Share  of  internet  users  who  have  purchased  selected  products  online  in  the  past  12  months  as  of  2018. (08 June 2020).

Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal  Esitlik Modelleri: Temel Kavramlar ve Örnek Uygulamalar.  Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6): 49-74.

Swinyard,  W. R. (1998).  ‘Shopping  mall customer  values:  the national  mall shopper and  the list of values‘.  Journal  of Retailing and Consumer Services, 5(3): 167-172.

Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L. S. 2001. Using Multivariate Statistics, Needham Heights. MA: Allyn and Bacon. Tauber,  E. M. (1972). ‘Why do people  shop?’,  Journal  of Marketing, 36: 46-49.

Taylor, S. & Todd,  P. A. 1995.  ‘Understanding information technology usage:  A test  of competing  models’,  Information Systems Research, 6(2): 144–176.

Teo,  T. 2001.  ‘Demographic  and  motivation  variables  associated with Internet  usage   activities’. Internet  Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy , 11(2):125–37.

Teo, T. S. H. 2006. ‘To buy or not to buy online: Adopters and non-adopters of online shopping  ın singapore‘,  Behaviour & Information Technology, 25(6): 497-509.

To, P. L., Liao, C. & Lin, T. H. (2007). ‘Shopping motivations  on ınternet:  a study based on utilitarian and hedonic  value‘. Technovation, 27: 774–787.

Topaloğlu,  C. 2012.  ‘Consumer  motivation  and  concern  factors  for online  shopping  in Turkey’, Asian  Academy  of Management Journal, 17(2):1-19.

TUIK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu) (2019).  Hanehalkı  Bilişim Teknolojileri (BT) Kullanım Araştırması,  2019,  Haber  Bülteni,

Sayı: 30574,  27 Ağustos  2019,  (08 June  2020).

Van  Slyke,  C.,  Comunale, C. L. & Belanger, F. 2002.  ‘Gender  differences  in perceptions of web-based shopping’, Communications of the ACM, 45(8):82-86.

Vankatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. 2000.  ‘A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance  model:  Four longitudinal field studies’,  Management Science,  46(2): 186-204.

Varadaraj, A. & Charumathi,  D. 2019.  ‘Impact of hedonic  and  utilitarian shopping  motive on online purchase decision’, Center for Studies in European Integration Working Papers Series, (11):6-16.

Verhoef,  P. C., & Langerak, F. 2001.  ‘Possible  determinants of consumers‟  adoption  of electronic  grocery  shopping  in the Netherlands’,  Journal of Retaining and Consumer Services,  8(5): 275-285.

Wakefield, K. L. & Baker, J. 1998. ‘Excitement at the mall: determinants and effects on shopping  responses‘, Journal  of Retailing, 74 (Winter): 515-540.

Wang,  S.,  Gomez-Insausti, R., Biasiotto,  M., Barbiero,  P. & Mcnall, B. 2000.  ‘A comparative analysis  of entertainment crossshopping in a power node  and a regional  mall‘, Journal  of Shopping Center  Research, 7(1): 59-84.

Yang, K. & Jolly, L. D. 2008.  ‘Age cohort analysis  in adoption in mobile data  services:  Gen xers versus  baby boomers’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(5): 272-280.

Zaichkowsky, J. L. 1985.  ‘Measuring  the involvement  construct‘,  Journal  of Consumer Research,12: 341-352.

Zeithaml, V. A. 1988. ‘Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence’, Journal of Marketing, 52 (3): 2-22.

Back to Volume 16 issue 1