The impact of strategic marketing elements on the customer relationship programme for a regional tourism organisation

Dr Malefane Stephen Monyane, Dr Hilary Kennedy Nji Bama

Vol 18 | Issue 2 pp. 141-149


The article focuses on the impact of strategic marketing elements on the customer relationship program of the Tshwane Tourism Association (TTA) in South Africa. Adopting a quantitative approach, random sampling was implemented in collecting data from twenty tourism and marketing experts from ten universities across South Africa. SPSS was applied in the data analysis process. Key findings indicated that strategic marketing elements were essential for the success of the customer relationship program for the TTA. Particularly it was highlighted that the adoption of a customer relationship program was important specifically for effective strategic marketing performance. While there was agreement that customer relationship management improves customer interactions leading to improved customer experience, sales and marketing, the implementation of a successful customer relationship program required clear focus and attention to be afforded to strategic marketing elements from the onset. Suggestions are made for further empirical enquiry into the barriers to developing a customer relationship management program and to investigate its impact on customer loyalty.

Keywords: Customer relationship management, marketing, regional tourism organization, customer loyalty, customer retention.

Back to Volume 18 issue 2

This article may be downloaded from the following locations:


Ali, D., Alam, M. & Bilal, H. 2021b. The influence of service quality, price, and environment on customer loyalty in the restaurant’s industry: The mediating role of customer satisfaction. Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies, 7(1): 143-154.

Al-Gasawneh, J.A., Anuar, M.M., Dacko-Pikiewicz, Z. & Saputra, J. 2021. The impact of customer relationship management dimensions on service quality. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 23:24-44.

Al-Sadr A.M.  2021.  Remarks on the use of Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients in assessing relationships in ophthalmic data.  Afr. Vision Eye Health, 80(1): a612.

Al-Hazmi, N. 2021.  The impact of customer relationship management on customer retention in travel and tourism organisations.  Management Science Letters, 11(1): 247-252.

Angamuthu, B. 2015. Impact of customer relationship management on customer satisfaction and its role towards customer loyalty and retention practices in the hotel sector. Journal of Management Research, 7(1): 43-52.

Andrade, C. 2020.  Sample size and its importance in research. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 42(1): 102-103.

Assaf, A.G. & Tsionas, M.G. 2019. Quantitative research in tourism and hospitality: an agenda for best-practice recommendations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(7): 2776-2787.

Baksi, A.K. 2014. Moderating impact of tourism relationship management dimensions on tourism service quality, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. Decision Science Letters, 3(2): 169- 186.

Chahal, H. & Bala, M. 2010.  Confirmatory study on brand equity and brand loyalty: A special look at the impact of attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 14: 1-12.

Cham, T.H., Lim, Y.M., Sia, B.C., Cheah, J.H. & Ting, H. 2021. Medical tourism destination image and its relationship with the intention to revisit: A study of Chinese medical tourists in Malaysia. Journal of China Tourism Research, 17(2): 163-191.

Clarke, J. & Bowen, D. 2021. Repeat tourists and familiar place formation: Conversion, inheritance and discovery. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 20: 100605.

Creative Survey System. 2021.  Creating survey research. Retrieved from: [20 October 2021].

Coenders, G. & Ferrer-Rosell, B. 2020. Compositional data analysis in tourism: review and future directions.  Tourism Analysis, 25(1): 153-168.

Connaway, L.S. & Radford.  M. 2017.  Research Methods in Library and Information Science. 6th ed.  Santa Barbara: CA Libraries Unlimited.

Dewi, D., Hajadi, F., Handranata, Y. & Herlina, M. 2021. The effect of service quality and customer satisfaction toward customer loyalty in service industry.  Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 9(3): 631-636.

Dewnarain, S., Ramkissoon, H. & Mavondo, F. 2021. Social customer relationship management: A customer perspective.  Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 30(6): 673-698.

Du Plessis, P.J., Jooste, C.J. & Strydom, J.W. 2005. Applied Strategic Marketing. Sandton: Heinemann Publishers.

Elfil, M. & Negida, A. 2017.  Sampling methods in clinical research; an educational review. Emergency (Tehran, Iran), 5(1): e52.

Fowler, S.B. & Lapp, V. 2019.  Sample size in quantitative research: Sample size will affect the significance of your research.  American Nurse Today, 14(5): 61-63.

George, R. 2021. Marketing Tourism and Hospitality: Concepts and Cases.  Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Goel, V., Singh, A. & Shrivastava, S. 2015.  CRM: A winning approach for the tourism sector. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 5(2): 321-325.

González-Torres, T., Rodríguez-Sánchez, J.L. & Pelechano-Barahona, E. 2021. Managing relationships in the tourism supply chain to overcome epidemic outbreaks: The case of COVID-19 and the hospitality industry in Spain.  International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92: 102733.

Gravetter, F.J. & Forzano, L.B. 2018. Research Methods for the Behavioural Sciences.  6th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage.

Hamid, N.R., Cheng, A.W. & Akhir, R.M. 2011. A global competitive advantage. Journal of Innovation and Knowledge Management, 21(2): 72-84.

Ibrahim, Y., Abbas, T. and Kamal, M. 2021. The use of electronic customer relationship management (E-CRM) features through hotel websites to enhance customer loyalty and brand image.  Journal of Association of Arab Universities for Tourism and Hospitality, 21(1): 106-128.              

Jaiswal, A., Niraj, R., Park, C.H. & Agarwal, M.K. 2018. The effect of relationship and transactional characteristics on customer retention in emerging online markets. Journal of Business Research, 92(C): 25-35.

Juanamasta, I.G., Wati, N.M.N., Hendrawati, E., Wahyuni, W., Pramudianti, M., Wisnujati, N.S., Setiawati, A.P., Susetyorini, S., Elan, U., Rusdiyanto, R. & Astanto, D. 2019. The role of customer service through customer relationship management to increase customer loyalty and good image.  International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 8(10): 2004-2007.

Kim, Y. R., Liu, A. & Williams, A. M. 2022. Competitiveness in the visitor economy: A systematic literature review, Tourism Economics, 28(3): 817-842.

Koutsothanassi, E., Bouranta, N. & Psomas, E. 2017. Examining the relationships among initiated expatriates in Vietnam: The role of internal marketing and work-role adjustment in an emerging economy.  Asia Pacific Business Review, 23(5): 677-696.

Kumar, V. & Reinartz, W. 2018. Customer Relationship Management Concept, Strategy, and Tools. Berlin: Springer.

Laczniak, G.R. & Murphy, P.E. 2019. The role of normative marketing ethics.  Journal of Business Research, 95: 401-407.

Lee, B.Y. & Park, S.Y. 2019. The role of customer delight and customer equity for loyalty in upscale hotels.  Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 39: 175-184.

Lentz, M., Berezan, O. & Raab, C. 2021. Uncovering the relationship between revenue management and hotel loyalty programs. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 21: 306-320.

Madhovi, P. G. & Dhliwayo, S. 2017. The relationship between customer relationship management (CRM) and performance in the hotel industry. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure, 6(1): 1-13.

Madhurima, D. 2018.  Store attributes, relationship investment, culture, religiosity and

relationship quality.  International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 10: 333-334.

Manoharan, A. & Singal, M. 2019. Organisational effectiveness in hospitality: Managers perspectives.  International Journal of Hospitality Management, 80: 123-125.

Marques, M., Moleiro, D., Brito, T.M. & Marques, T. 2021. Customer relationship management as an important relationship marketing tool: The case of the hospitality industry in Estoril Coast. Impact of New Media in Tourism, 39-56.

MacLeod, N. 2017. Building Safe Systems in Aviation: A CRM Developer’s Handbook. London: Routledge.

Meena, P. & Sahu, P. 2021 Customer relationship management research from 2000 to 2020: an academic literature review and classification.  Vision, 25(2): 136–158.

Mkandawire, S.B. 2019.  Selected common methods and tools for data collection in research. Selected Readings in Education, 2:143-153.

Moudud-Ul-Huq, S., Akter, R., Mahmud, M.S. & Hasan, N. 2021. Impact of customer relationship management on tourist satisfaction, loyalty, and retention: Saint Martin’s Island. International Journal of Customer Relationship Marketing and Management, 12(3): 20-37.

Musa, R.A. & Nasiru, M. 2020. Impact of customer relationship management on marketing performance of selected gas stations in Adamawa State. International Journal of Research, 7: 209-224.

Nguyen, T.H. & Waring, T.S. 2013.The adoption of customer relationship management (CRM) technology in SMEs: An empirical study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(4): 824-848.

Pakurár, M., Haddad, H., Nagy, J., Popp, J. & Oláh, J. 2019. The service quality dimensions that affect customer satisfaction in the Jordanian banking sector.  Sustainability, 11(4): 1113.

Pandey, P. & Pandey, M.M. 2021. Research Methodology Tools and Techniques.  Bridge Centre.

Payne, A., & Frow, P. 2005. A strategic framework for customer relationship management. Journal of Marketing, 69(4): 167-176.

Ponomarenko, A. 2018. B2B digital marketing plan for attracting new international customers and building brand awareness globally.  Unpublished Bachelor’s thesis.  JAMK University of Applied Sciences.

Pool, J.K., Khodadadi, M. & Kalati, E.A. 2017. Linking internal marketing orientation to balanced scorecard outcomes in small businesses: The case of travel agencies. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(3): 297-308.

Rahimi, R. & Gunlu, E. 2016. Implementing customer relationship management (CRM) in hotel industry from organizational culture perspective: case of a chain hotel in the UK. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(1): 89-112.

Rahimi, R., Köseoglu, M.A., Ersoy, A.B. & Okumus, F. 2017. Customer relationship management research in tourism and hospitality: a state-of-the-art. Tourism Review, 72(2): 209-220.

Rahman, M.S.U., Simmons, D., Shone, M.C. & Ratna, N.N. 2021.  Social and cultural capitals in tourism resource governance: the essential lenses for community-focussed co-management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-21.

Rajput, A., Zahid, M.M. & Najaf, R. 2018. Using CRM to model firm performance in a business-to-business market.  Journal of Relationship Marketing, 17(2): 118-151.

Ramaj, A. & Ismaili, R. 2015. Customer relationship management, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 4(3): 594-599.

Renfors, S.M. 2021.  Stakeholders’ perceptions of sustainable tourism development in the cold-water destination: The case of the Finnish archipelago. Tourism Planning & Development, 18(5): 510-528.

Rootman, C., Tait, M. & Sharp, G. 2011. Relationship marketing and customer retention lessons for South African banks, South African Business Review, 15(3): 184-206.

Salman, A., Jaafar, M., Mohamad, D. & Malik, S. 2021. Ecotourism development in Penang Hill: A multi-stakeholder perspective towards achieving environmental sustainability. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 42945–42958.

Schober, P., Boer, C., Schwarte, L. 2018. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.  Anesthesia & Analgesia, (126)5: 1763-1768.

Sota, S., Chaudhry, H., Chamaria, A. & Chauhan, A. 2018. Customer relationship management: an academic literature.  Journal of Relationship Marketing, 17(4): 1-15.

South Africa.  City of Tshwane.  2021.  Welcome to the City of Tshwane.  Retrieved from: [Accessed 20 February 2022].

Taber, K.S. 2018.  The Use of Cronbach’s Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education.  Res Sci Educ. 48, 1273–1296.

Tien, N.H., Anh, D.B.H., Diem, P.T., Vu, N.T., Dung, H.T. & Bien, B.X. 2021. Customer

service culture at TechComBank in Vietnam. Himalayan Journal of Economics Business and Management, 2(4): 61-69.

Tshwane Tourism Association.  2021.  About Tshwane Tourism Association (TTA). Retrieved from: [Accessed 15 June 2021].

Ullah, I. & Narain, R. 2020. The impact of customer relationship management and

organisational culture on mass customisation capability and firm performance.  International Journal of Customer Relationship Marketing and Management (IJCRMM), 11(3): 60-81.

Vallabh, D., Radder, L. & Venter, D. 2015. Factors preceding CRM readiness in small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises, Acta Commercii, 15(1): 263.

van Tonder, E. & Petzer, D.J. 2018. The interrelationships between relationship marketing constructs and customer engagement dimensions. The Service Industries Journal, 38:13-14, 948-973, DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2018.1425398.

Vrontis, D., Christofi, M., Giacosa, E. & Serravalle, F. 2021. Sustainable development in tourism: a stakeholder analysis of the Langhe region. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 46(5): 846-878.

World Travel & Tourism Council. 2019. Economic impact report. Retrieved from: [Accessed 01 February 2020].

Yang, Q. & Hu, Z. H. 2015. A relationship study on marketing strategy management towards customer relationship management and perceived value. Acta Oeconomica, 65(s2): 173-185.

Zaky, A., Roushdy, M. & Ouf, S. 2021. A deep learning framework to improve customer retention. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 56(6): 285-296.

Back to Volume 18 issue 2